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Do not trust this company with your personal belongings.The owner of this company is a liar and believes it is ok steal and lie from his customers.

Be very cautious. Using this company was the worst mistake I've ever made.

I paid for moving and storage but what I got was my things taken and when I confronted the owner, he flat out lied about the whole thing. Then when I was told I couldn't do anything about it, I wrote the truth on the internet and now the owner is threatening to sue.

The owner so much as admits to what happened but expects me to just sit by and be happy about what he did.


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Check out the reviews on ripoff on terry moving and storage

Mission Viejo, California, United States #871000

After reading all the bad reviews about this company and they are all the same is this guy still in business??? Come on people, wake up and stop using this corrupt company so they will go out of business once and for all!!

to Anonymous Bend, Oregon, United States #911042

Yes it's true.Had my jewelry stolen that I had hidden (or so I thought) in new house.

That's what these thieves do. They look in cupboards when you're not looking. Also had evidence of boxes opened and damaged furniture. Mark Terry admitted to knowing one of the movers Ryan had stolen before.

The other mover Bennie did nothing but complain about the owner Mark Terry. These are not their real names. Wish we had used another moving company even if we had to pay more. The glowing online reviews are ridiculous and made up.

Mark Terry is weak and *** not to hire honest employees or try to resolve issues with unhappy clients.It will catch up with him - it always does!


Do not use them!The glowing reviews are phony.

Movers showed up a day early, didn't get all the boxes and the worst part my jewelry was stolen from being hidden in a cupboard. Also over charged after they had all of our furniture. Mark Terry actually was aware that one of the mover's Ryan had stolen before.

Wish we had used another moving company.Mark Terry not trustworthy.


Horrible experience.Do not trust a word that comes out of Mark Terry mouth.

He will over charge and completely lie to your face. Very unfortunate because friends recommended him. They charged the full amount the day of the quote. Never refunded the money they said they would.

Broke a large number of items in the move. Padded their hours by over 3 hours. And never followed through on items they said they would get back to us on.

Very unfortunate experience.If you are looking for movers...keep looking.


terry moving is horrible the owner will raise the rates on you and try to get as much of your money as he can. please DONT use them. this company will literally rape your pocket.


THIS COMPANY IT THE HORRIBLE !!!!They ruined my fridge (broke the motor off of it and also laid it on it's back).

They quoted me a price on the phone after I told the guy 4 times the description of the appliances. He tells me he has a special dolly and truck and seeing his web site all looked good. He showed up not in a moving van but in an old handicapped mini van and when he pull the stove out that barely fit inside I said the fridge will never fit in there with out laying it down which ruins a fridge. Too late.

the fridge was already on its back at the home of the lady I bought it from. They also tell me I can't have the stove until I pay them in cash $250. I had to call my friend John from work to come help me with this ***. They started to drive away with my stove so I finally ran after them and payed them the money.

When John arrived we went to the other house in time to see them trying to stuff the fridge into a space too small for it and sure enough they broke the motor off the fridge and dented the front of the fridge trying to stuff it inside.

It never fit.My friend then forced him to give back some tf the money and when he tried to get the rest the guy ran to the van and drove off.


I also had a bad experience with Terry Moving & Storage.They damaged many pieces of expensive furniture.

I filed a claim for loss through the company but never heard back. It has been 9 months and all of my calls go straight to voice mail with no return calls.

I also had a contract bid before the move directly from the owner, Mark Terry, but was asked to pay an additional $400 once the job was complete because the owner claimed he "underestimated the job".Being naive, I gave in and agreed to pay $200 more before noticing all of the damage to my belongings.

to Unhappy Customer Brea, California, United States #834587

DON'T USE TERRY MOVING AND STORAGE!I wont use a name because we are taking this guy to court.

He moved our belongings to storage prior to our out of state move at the end of 2013.

Nearly every piece of furniture we own is damaged, broken or unusable. We purchased the full coverage insurance (up to $40K coverage) from him for an extra $300. We are easily at that amount if not more. When we notified him of our new address he suddenly noticed that the trailer was fuller then he realized charging us thousands more before he would deliver it out of state to us.

We know it wasn't full since we were there they closed it. Since his crew was going to be in our area the same week as our move he told US when we were going to move in, which was not an option since our new house wasn't ready. We were later told by the crew, HIS crew, that unloaded the truck they there was another load inside the same trailer and that was why our things were smashed, broken, bent..they basically threw some other persons household on top of our things. When we brought this to his attention he blamed us for the items being damaged or broken.

We didn't load his truck or carry things our of our old house. That is what we hired him to do! He charged our credit card multiple times for services we didn't ask for and the truck was not here to unload our stuff on the day planned..they were a day late. He takes no accountability for anything yet blames everyone else for the entire situation-you, his staff, anyone but himself for his shady practices.

He is a horrible person!He will go out of his way to blame you for anything that goes wrong with your move so if this is what you look for in relocation...give him a call and I am sure you will happily miserable~



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

This article is about dental science. For the profession see Dentist. For tooth care see oral hygiene and dental surgery.

Dentist Dentist.2.jpg

A dentist and dental assistant treating a patient.


Activity sectors Medicine


Education required Dental degree

Fields of employment Hospitals, Private Practices

Dentistry is the branch of medicine that is involved in the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders and conditions of the oral cavity, maxillofacial area and the adjacent and associated structures and their impact on the human body.[1] Dentistry is widely considered necessary for complete overall health. Those who practice dentistry are known as dentists. The dentist's supporting team aids in providing oral health services, which includes dental assistants, dental hygienists, dental technicians, and dental therapists.



* 1 Overview

o 1.1 Dental surgery and treatments

o 1.2 Prevention

* 2 Education and licensing

* 3 Specialties

* 4 History

* 5 Priority patients

* 6 Geography

* 7 Organizations

* 8 See also

o 8.1 Lists

* 9 References

* 10 External links

[edit] Overview

Sagittal section of a tooth

[edit] Dental surgery and treatments

Dentistry usually encompasses very important practices related to the oral cavity. Oral diseases are major public health problems due to their high incidence and prevalence across the globe with the disadvantaged affected more than other socio-economic groups.[2]

The majority of dental treatments are carried out to prevent or treat the two most common oral diseases which are dental caries (tooth decay) and periodontal disease (gum disease or pyorrhea). Common treatments involve the restoration of teeth as a treatment for dental caries (fillings), extraction or surgical removal of teeth which cannot be restored, scaling of teeth to treat periodontal problems and endodontic root canal treatment to treat abscessed teeth.

All dentists train for around 4 or 5 years at University and qualify as a 'dental surgeon'. By nature of their general training they can carry out the majority of dental treatments such as restorative (fillings, crowns, bridges), prosthetic (dentures), endodontic (root canal) therapy, periodontal (gum) therapy, and exodontia (extraction of teeth), as well as performing examinations, radiographs (x-rays) and diagnosis. Dentists can also prescribe certain medications such as antibiotics, fluorides, and sedatives but they are not able to prescribe the full range that physicians can.

Dentists need to take additional qualifications or training to carry out more complex treatments such as sedation, oral and maxillofacial surgery, and implants. Whilst the majority of oral diseases are unique and self limiting, some can indicate poor general health, tumours, blood dyscrasias and abnormalities including genetic problems.

[edit] Prevention

Dentists also encourage prevention of dental caries through proper hygiene (tooth brushing and flossing), fluoride, and tooth polishing. Dental sealants are plastic materials applied to one or more teeth, for the intended purpose of preventing dental caries (cavities) or other forms of tooth decay. Recognized but less conventional preventive agents include xylitol, which is bacteriostatic,[3] casein derivatives,[4] and proprietary products such as Cavistat BasicMints.[5]

[edit] Education and licensing

Early dental chair in Pioneer West Museum in Shamrock, Texas

The first dental school, Baltimore College of Dental Surgery, opened in Baltimore, Maryland, USA in 1840. Philadelphia Dental College was founded in 1863 and is the second in the United States. In 1907 Temple University accepted a bid to incorporate the school.

Studies showed that dentists graduated from different countries,[6] or even from different dental schools in one country,[7] may have different clinical decisions for the same clinical condition. For example, dentists graduated from Israeli dental schools may recommend more often for the removal of asymptomatic impacted third molar (wisdom teeth) than dentists graduated from Latin American or Eastern European dental schools.[8]

In the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the 1878 British Dentists Act and 1879 Dentists Register limited the title of "dentist" and "dental surgeon" to qualified and registered practitioners.[9][10] However, others could legally describe themselves as "dental experts" or "dental consultants".[11] The practice of dentistry in the United Kingdom became fully regulated with the 1921 Dentists Act, which required the registration of anyone practicing dentistry.[12] The British Dental Association, formed in 1880 with Sir John Tomes as president, played a major role in prosecuting dentists practising illegally.[9]

In Korea, Taiwan, Japan, Sweden, Germany, the United States, and Canada, a dentist is a healthcare professional qualified to practice dentistry after graduating with a degree of either Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS) or Doctor of Dental Medicine (DMD). This is equivalent to the Bachelor of Dental Surgery/Baccalaureus Dentalis Chirurgiae (BDS, BDent, BChD, BDSc) that is awarded in the UK and British Commonwealth countries. In most western countries, to become a qualified dentist one must usually complete at least four years of postgraduate study[citation needed]; within the European Union the education has to be at least five years. Dentists usually complete between five and eight years of post-secondary education before practising. Though not mandatory, many dentists choose to complete an internship or residency focusing on specific aspects of dental care after they have received their dental degree.

[edit] Specialties

Main article: Specialty (dentistry)

The American Dental Association recognizes nine dental specialties: Public Health Dentistry, Endodontics, Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology, Oral & Maxillofacial Radiology, Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery (Oral Surgeon), Orthodontics, Pediatric Dentistry, Periodontics, Prosthodontics, and General Dentistry. [13][14]

[edit] History

Farmer at the dentist, Johann Liss, c. 1616-17.

The Indus Valley Civilization has yielded evidence of dentistry being practiced as far back as 7000 BC.[15] This earliest form of dentistry involved curing tooth related disorders with bow drills operated, perhaps, by skilled bead craftsmen.[16] The reconstruction of this ancient form of dentistry showed that the methods used were reliable and effective.[17]

A Sumerian text from 5000 BC describes a "tooth worm" as the cause of dental caries.[18] Evidence of this belief has also been found in ancient India, Egypt, Japan, and China. The legend of the worm is also found in the writings of Homer, and as late as the 14th century AD the surgeon Guy de Chauliac still promoted the belief that worms cause tooth decay.[19]

The Edwin Smith Papyrus, written in the 17th century BC but which may reflect previous manuscripts from as early as 3000 BC, includes the treatment of several dental ailments.[20][21] In the 18th century BC, the Code of Hammurabi referenced dental extraction twice as it related to punishment.[22] Examination of the remains of some ancient Egyptians and Greco-Romans reveals early attempts at dental prosthetics and surgery.[23]

Ancient Greek scholars Hippocrates and Aristotle wrote about dentistry, including the eruption pattern of teeth, treating decayed teeth and gum disease, extracting teeth with forceps, and using wires to stabilize loose teeth and fractured jaws.[24] Some say the first use of dental appliances or bridges comes from the Etruscans from as early as 700 BC.[25] Further research suggested that 3000 B.C. In ancient Egypt, Hesi-Re is the first named “dentist” (greatest of the teeth). The Egyptians bind replacement teeth together with gold wire. Roman medical writer Cornelius Celsus wrote extensively of oral diseases as well as dental treatments such as narcotic-containing emollients and astringents.[26][27]

Historically, dental extractions have been used to treat a variety of illnesses. During the Middle Ages and throughout the 19th century, dentistry was not a profession in itself, and often dental procedures were performed by barbers or general physicians. Barbers usually limited their practice to extracting teeth which alleviated pain and associated chronic tooth infection. Instruments used for dental extractions date back several centuries. In the 14th century, Guy de Chauliac invented the dental pelican[28] (resembling a pelican's beak) which was used up until the late 18th century. The pelican was replaced by the dental key[28] which, in turn, was replaced by modern forceps in the 20th century.[citation needed]

A modern Dentist's chair

The first book focused solely on dentistry was the "Artzney Buchlein" in 1530,[29] and the first dental textbook written in English was called "Operator for the Teeth" by Charles Allen in 1685.[10] It was between 1650 and 1800 that the science of modern dentistry developed. It is said that the 17th century French physician Pierre Fauchard started dentistry science as we know it today, and he has been named "the father of modern dentistry".[30] Among many of his developments were the extensive use of dental prosthesis, the introduction of dental fillings as a treatment for dental caries and the statement that sugar derivative acids such as tartaric acid are responsible for dental decay.

There has been a problem of quackery in the history of dentistry, and accusations of quackery among some dental practitioners persist today.[31]



On March 11, 2011, an earthquake struck off the coast of Japan, churning up a devastating tsunami that swept over cities and farmland in the northern part of the country and set off warnings as far away the west coast of the United States and South America. Recorded as 9.0 on the Richter scale, it was the most powerful quake ever to hit the country. As the nation struggled with a rescue effort, it also faced the worst nuclear emergency since Chernobyl; explosions and leaks of radioactive gas took place in three reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station that suffered partial meltdowns, while spent fuel rods at another reactor overheated and caught fire, releasing radioactive material directly into the atmosphere. Japanese officials turned to increasingly desperate measures, while their American counterparts gave a far more dire appraisal of the dangers.

As of March 24, the official death toll had been raised to more than 9,500, and more than 16,000 people are listed as missing, although there may be some overlap between the two groups. The final toll is expected to reach nearly 20,000.

Live Updates on The Lede blog, including selected video clips and coverage from Twitter.

Multimedia: see what happens in a meltdown, a map of the areas of damage, satellite before and after photos, the cause of the quake and readers' photos.

March 25 Japanese officials began quietly encouraging people to evacuate a larger swath of territory around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant, a sign that they hold little hope that the crippled facility will soon be brought under control. The authorities said they would now assist people who want to leave the area from 12 to 19 miles outside the crippled plant and said they were now encouraging “voluntary evacuation” from the area. Those people had been advised on March 15 to remain indoors, while those within a 12-mile radius of the plant had been ordered to evacuate.

The effort to contain the crisis at the plant suffered a setback when unexpected radiation injuries to workers suggested that the reactor vessel of the No. 3 unit may have been breached. That could release radiation from the mox fuel in the reactor — a combination of uranium and plutonium that is more toxic than the fuel in the other reactors.

Two weeks after the earthquake and tsunami struck, engineers still do not know the full extent of damage to roads, bridges, rail lines and other infrastructure.

In one small town, it appears that the tsunami seems to have succeeded — where years of boycotts, protests and high-seas chases by Western environmentalists had failed — in knocking out a pillar of the nation’s whaling industry.

March 24 The Japanese authorities are considering a plan to import bottled water from overseas after spreading contamination from a crippled nuclear plant led to a panicked rush to buy water in Tokyo. At the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, nuclear engineers say some of the most difficult and dangerous tasks are still ahead — and time is not necessarily on the side of the repair teams.

March 23 Radioactive iodine detected in Tokyo’s water supply spurred a warning for infants and the government issued a stark new estimate about the costs of rebuilding from the earthquake and tsunami. The water announcement added to the growing anxiety about public safety posed by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. The Health Ministry said in a statement that it was unlikely that there would be negative consequences to infants who did drink the water, but that it should be avoided if possible and not be used to make infant formula. In Washington, the Food and Drug Administration said it would halt imports of dairy products and produce from the area of Japan where a nuclear reactor is leaking radiation.

March 22

Workers at Japan’s ravaged nuclear power plant renewed a bid to bring its command centers back online and restore electricity to vital cooling systems but an overheating spent fuel pool hampered efforts and raised the threat of further radiation leaks. Workers have now connected power cables to all six reactors at the plant though some of the machinery, including the water pumps that cool the reactors, might be damaged, officials said, requiring more repair work.

It was revealed that just a month before a powerful earthquake and tsunami crippled the Fukushima Daiichi plant at the center of Japan’s nuclear crisis, government regulators approved a 10-year extension for the oldest of the six reactors at the power station despite warnings about its safety. Several weeks after the extension was granted, the company admitted that it had failed to inspect 33 pieces of equipment related to the cooling systems, including water pumps and diesel generators, at the power station’s six reactors.

March 21

Efforts to stabilize the hobbled nuclear power plant in Fukushima hit a snag when engineers found that crucial machinery at one reactor requires repair, a process that will take two to three days, government officials said. Another team of workers trying to repair another reactor was evacuated in the afternoon after gray smoke rose from Reactor No. 3. In the wake of Japan’s cascading disasters, signs of economic loss can be found in many corners of the globe, raising questions about the effect on the still-weak economic recovery in the United States, Europe and Japan.

March 20

It has become clear that the earthquake and the resulting nuclear crisis, will change this nation. The open question is how, and how much. Will it be a final marker of an irreversible decline? Or will it be an opportunity to draw on the resilience of a people repeatedly tested by calamity to reshape Japan — in the mold of either the left or the right? This disaster, like the 1923 Tokyo earthquake and the 1995 Kobe earthquake, could well signal a new era.

March 19

A week after an earthquake and tsunami devastated their communities and set off the worst nuclear accident since Chernobyl, the plight of the thousands still stranded in areas near the stricken reactors — many too old or infirm to move — has underscored what residents say is a striking lack of help from the national government to assist with the evacuation of danger zones or the ferrying of supplies to those it has urged to stay inside.

March 18

Japanese engineers battled to cool spent fuel rods and restore electric power to pumps at the stricken Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station as new challenges seemed to accumulate by the hour, with steam billowing from one reactor and damage at another apparently making it difficult to lower temperatures. The steam, probably carrying radioactive particles, was also seen on Friday rising from Reactor No. 2., which was hit by an explosion on March 15. Additionally, a senior Western nuclear industry executive said that there also appeared to be damage to the floor or sides of the spent fuel pool at Reactor No. 4, and that this was making it extremely hard to refill the pool with water.

The region around the nuclear reactor has seen a swelling exodus — almost 10,000 residents, according to the national broadcaster NHK — of residents who have been spurred to leave by a spreading panic caused in part by distrust that the government is telling the full truth about the nuclear accidents and how widespread the danger is. Also, the United States and other major industrial nations will join Japan in a highly unusual effort to stabilize the value of the yen by intervening in currency markets, the Group of 7 nations announced.

March 17

Authorities reached for ever more desperate and unconventional methods to cool stricken reactors, deploying helicopters and water cannons in a race to prevent perilous overheating, but were hampered by high radiation levels. The Japanese decision to focus their efforts on the No. 3 reactor appeared to suggest that officials believe it is a greater threat, since it is the only one at the site loaded with a mixed fuel known as mox, for mixed oxide, which includes reclaimed plutonium, which could produce a more dangerous radioactive plume if released.

A United Nations forecast of the possible movement of the radioactive plume coming from crippled Japanese reactors shows it churning across the Pacific, and touching the Aleutian Islands before hitting Southern California late on March 18. Health and nuclear experts emphasize that radiation in the plume will be diluted as it travels and, at worst, would have extremely minor health consequences in the United States, even if hints of it are ultimately detectable.

March 16

Japanese authorities announced that a second reactor unit at the stricken Fukushima Daiichi plant in northeastern Japan may have ruptured and appeared to be releasing radioactive steam. The break, at the No. 3 reactor unit, worsened the already perilous conditions at the plant, following reports that the containment vessel in the No. 2 reactor had also cracked.

Emperor Akihito, in an unprecedented television address to the nation, said that he was “deeply worried” about the ongoing nuclear crisis at several stricken reactors and asked for people to act with compassion “to overcome these difficult times.” The death toll climbed inexorably. More than 3,600 people were confirmed dead and more than 7,800 remained unaccounted for by Wednesday afternoon. The authorities say the number of dead is likely to exceed 10,000. Aftershocks kept people across northern Japan on edge.

March 15

Workers struggled to reassert control over badly damaged nuclear reactors and avert calamity after the situation at the stricken Fukushima Daiichi plant appeared to *** towards catastrophe. Radiation levels shot up at the plant after a new explosion and a fire caused by the overheating of spent fuel rods in a pool at the plant's No. 4 reactor, which had been shut before the quake. But by late afternoon, there were signs that workers had, at least for the moment, contained some of the danger: The escalated radiation levels of earlier in the day — possibly from a fire in the No. 4 reactor — stabilized and then declined towards evening, according to Japanese authorities. But some experts warned that the pools holding spent fuel rods could continue to pose a great danger.

The National Police Agency said that 2,722 people had died, and many thousands were still missing. Bodies continued to wash ashore at various spots along the coast after having been pulled out to sea by the tsunami’s retreat. Some 400,000 people were living in makeshift shelters or evacuation centers, officials said. Bitterly cold and windy weather that was pushing into northern Japan was compounding the misery as the region struggled with shortages of food, fuel and water.

The prospect of a nuclear catastrophe led to heavy selling on global markets, driving the benchmark index in Tokyo down more than 10 percent, while Frankfurt tumbled over 4 percent in early European trading. And the disaster in Japan has immediately affected the supply of all sorts of components used in myriad consumer electronics and other products.

Also: For the elderly, the destruction echoed memories of World War II. Germany said it will temporarily shut down seven German nuclear power plants that began operations before the end of 1980 as officials begin a three-month safety review of all of the country’s 17 plants.

March 14

An explosion was reported at a second nuclear reactor, as it became clear that radioactive releases of steam from the two crippled plants could go on for weeks or even months. The emergency flooding of two stricken reactors with seawater and the resulting steam releases are a desperate step intended to avoid a much bigger problem: a full meltdown of the nuclear cores in two reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. The mechanics of a partial meltdown are described here.

As search-and-rescue teams reached the stricken areas, the death toll continued to climb, inexorably so, as officials uncovered more bodies. The official toll stood at more than 1,800 confirmed dead and 2,300 missing. Police officials, however, said it was certain that more than 10,000 had died. Police teams, for example, found about 700 bodies that had washed ashore on a scenic peninsula in Miyagi Prefecture, close to the epicenter of the quake that unleashed the tsunami. The bodies washed out as the tsunami retreated. Now they are washing back in.

A fragile bipartisan consensus on nuclear power’s promise for the United States may have been dissolved by the crisis at plants in Japan.

The Japanese central bank raced to shield the country’s economy and plunging financial markets from the impact of the devastating earthquake and tsunami by pumping liquidity into the financial system and easing monetary policy further through an expansion of asset purchases.

March 13

Japan faced mounting humanitarian and nuclear emergencies as partial meltdowns occurred at two crippled plants and cooling problems struck four more reactors. Military units and civilian search-and-rescue teams continued their grim and grinding work in the aftermath of the massive quake and tsunami that struck the nation’s northern Pacific coast. Prime Minister Naoto Kan told a press conference: “I think that the earthquake, tsunami and the situation at our nuclear reactors makes up the worst crisis in the 65 years since the war. If the nation works together, we will overcome.” The government ordered 100,000 troops into relief roles in the field — nearly half the country’s active military force and the largest mobilization in postwar Japan. An American naval strike group led by the nuclear-powered aircraft carrier Ronald Reagan also arrived off Japan on Sunday to help with refueling, supply and rescue duties.

March 12

While nuclear experts were grappling with possible meltdowns at two reactors after the devastating earthquake and ensuing tsunami in northern Japan, the country was mobilizing a nationwide rescue effort to pluck survivors from collapsed buildings and rush food and water to hundreds of thousands of people without water, electricity, heat or telephone service.Entire villages in parts of Japan’s northern Pacific coast have vanished under a wall of water, and many communities are cut off, leaving the country trying to absorb the scale of the destruction even as fears grew over the unfolding nuclear emergency. Tens of thousands were evacuated from the vicinity of two plants.

March 11

Rescuers struggled to reach survivors as Japan reeled after an earthquake and a tsunami struck in deadly tandem. The 8.9-magnitude earthquake set off a devastating tsunami that sent walls of water washing over coastal cities in the north. Concerns mounted over possible radiation leaks from two nuclear plants near the earthquake zone.The death toll from the tsunami and earthquake, the strongest ever recorded in Japan, was in the hundreds, but Japanese news media quoted government officials as saying that it would almost certainly rise to more than 1,000. About 200 to 300 bodies were found along the waterline in Sendai, a port city in northeastern Japan and the closest major city to the epicenter.

Japan Before the Quake

Japan is in the unenviable position of being one of the few nations in recent history to have seen a striking reversal of economic fortune. The original Asian success story, Japan rode one of the great speculative stock and property bubbles of all time in the 1980s to become the first Asian country to challenge the long dominance of the West.

Japan has had the world’s second-largest economy for much of the last four decades, according to the World Bank. And during the 1980s, there was even talk about Japan’s economy some day overtaking that of the United States.

But the bubbles popped in the late 1980s and early 1990s, and Japan fell into a slow but relentless decline that neither enormous budget deficits nor a flood of easy money has reversed. For nearly a generation now, the nation has been trapped in low growth and a corrosive downward spiral of prices, known as deflation, in the process shriveling from an economic Godzilla to little more than an afterthought in the global economy.

In the second quarter of 2010, China passed Japan to become the world’s second-largest economy behind the United States. For Japan, the statistic reflected a decline in economic and political power. In January 2011, Standard & Poor’s, the credit ratings agency, downgraded the country's long-term sovereign debt, a sharp reminder of the heavy burden plaguing the Japanese economy at levels that stand out even in an increasingly debt-ridden world.

The Economy

For close to five decades after World War II, Japan's economy grew steadily through policies that closely aligned government and large manufacturers. That formula reached its peak in the late 1980s, but a real estate bust brought growth to an end, and was followed by a long intractable slump that lasted through the 1990s and into the 21st century.

Deflation has left a deep imprint on the Japanese, breeding generational tensions and a culture of pessimism, fatalism and reduced expectations. While Japan remains in many ways a prosperous society, it faces an increasingly grim situation, particularly outside the relative economic vibrancy of Tokyo.

In the 1980s, a mighty — and threatening — “Japan Inc.” seemed ready to obliterate whole American industries, from automakers to supercomputers. With the Japanese stock market quadrupling and the yen rising to unimagined heights, Japan’s companies dominated global business, gobbling up trophy properties like Hollywood movie studios (Universal Studios and Columbia Pictures), famous golf courses (Pebble Beach) and iconic real estate (Rockefeller Center).

In 1991, economists were predicting that Japan would overtake the United States as the world’s largest economy by 2010. In fact, Japan’s economy remains the same size it was then: a gross domestic product of $5.7 trillion at current exchange rates. During the same period, the United States economy doubled in size to $14.7 trillion. In 2010, China overtook Japan to become the world’s No. 2 economy.

The decline has been painful for the Japanese, with companies and individuals having lost the equivalent of trillions of dollars in the stock market, which is now just a quarter of its value in 1989, and in real estate, where the average price of a home is the same as it was in 1983. And the future looks even bleaker, as Japan faces the world’s largest government debt — around 200 percent of gross domestic product — a shrinking population and rising rates of poverty and suicide.

But perhaps the most noticeable impact has been Japan’s crisis of confidence. Its once voracious manufacturers now seem prepared to surrender industry after industry to hungry South Korean and Chinese rivals. A new frugality is apparent among a generation of young Japanese, who have known nothing but economic stagnation and deflation. They refuse to buy big-ticket items like cars or televisions, and fewer choose to study abroad in America.

The classic explanation of the evils of deflation is that it makes individuals and businesses less willing to use money, because the rational way to act when prices are falling is to hold onto cash, which gains in value. But in Japan, nearly a generation of deflation has had a much deeper effect, subconsciously coloring how the Japanese view the world. It has bred a deep pessimism about the future and a fear of taking risks that make people instinctively reluctant to spend or invest, driving down demand — and prices — even further.

In March 2010, in attempt to stimulate the economy, the Japanese government pushed a record 92.3 trillion yen ($1 trillion) budget through Parliament aimed at stimulating growth in the long-stagnant economy. It meant another round of spending and adding to Tokyo's already substantial public debt.

Although the Japanese economy grew at a healthy clip of 1.2 percent in the first quarter of 2010, some economists worried about runaway government spending. Japan is already saddled with a public debt twice the size of its economy.

In late August 2010, Japan promised a host of measures in a bid to ignite its faltering economy and temper a punishingly strong yen. Mr. Kan proposed new stimulus steps, while the Bank of Japan, under pressure from the government, further eased its already easy monetary policy.

In January 2011, Standard & Poors, the credit ratings agency, lowered its sovereign credit rating for Japan to AA- from AA. That was three levels below the highest possible rating, and S.& P.’s first downgrade of Japanese government debt since 2002. With the lower grade, the country's debt rating was on par with China’s, which in 2010 overtook Japan as the world’s second-largest economy, after the United States. Moody’s affirmed its Aa2 rank for Japan, the third-highest grade.

S.& P., in downgrading Japan, warned that the Japanese government had no “coherent strategy” to address its ballooning deficit, and that its already high debt burden was likely to continue to rise further than it had anticipated before the financial crisis. A rapidly aging population is adding to the country’s woes, raising the likelihood of increasing social security and pension obligations in the future.

Japan’s economy contracted in the fourth quarter of 2010 when compared with the previous three months, though analysts are optimistic about the country’s prospects for the rest of the year.

Foreign Policy: The Military

In foreign policy, the rise of China and North Korea's nuclear ambitions led Japan to actively review long-held policies. After decades of sheltering under the American security umbrella, Japan has begun seeking a more assertive role in the region.

After the attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, Japan dispatched its naval vessels to the Indian Ocean to supply fuel for warships of the coalition forces operating in Afghanistan, and sent troops to Iraq for humanitarian assistance, along with planes to transport cargo and American troops. (In late 2009, the newly elected Democratic Party said it plans to withdraw from the refueling arrangement.)

The Japanese military, which has one of the largest budgets and some of the most sophisticated weapons in the world, began developing its offensive capabilities. Japan also decided to join the U.S. in developing and financing a missile defense shield, and its defense agency was upgraded to a full ministry in 2007. Parliament also passed a bill calling for a referendum as early as 2010 to amend the U.S.-imposed "peace constitution."

In what would be a sweeping overhaul of its cold war-era defense strategy, in December 2010 Japanese newspapers reported that Japan was about to release new military guidelines reducing its heavy armored and artillery forces pointed north toward Russia in favor of creating more mobile units that could respond to China’s growing presence near its southernmost islands. The new defense strategy called for greater integration of Japan’s armed forces with the United States military.

Nationalism, China and Unruly Politics

Junichiro Koizumi, a popular prime minister, and his successor in 2006, Shinzo Abe, helped win approval of these changes by emphasizing nationalism. But Japan's neighbors were outraged by Mr. Koizumi's yearly visits the Yasukuni shrine, which pays tribute to several war criminals, by Tokyo's approval of revisionist textbooks whitewashing Japan's wartime history and by Mr. Abe's refusal to acknowledge fully Japan military's role in coercing women into sex slavery during the war. Mr. Abe, who gained popularity as a cabinet minister by pursuing the issue of past abductions of Japanese citizens by North Korea, took a hawkish stance toward Pyongyang.

But he abruptly stepped down in September 2007. His successor, Yasuo Fukuda, visited China in December 2007, seeking to further improve relations between the two Asian giants. On Sept. 1, 2008, Mr. Fukuda, whose popularity had sunk to Mr. Abe's levels, announced his own resignation in a similarly abrupt and unexpected manner.

The Liberal Democrats had governed Japan for most of its postwar history, but in recent times the party appeared unable to adapt to a changing era. Disgruntled voters increasingly blamed them for failing to outgrow traditional pork-barrel politics and find an end to the nation's seemingly intractable political paralysis and its economic decline in the current recession.

On Aug. 30, 2009, the Liberal Democrats were roundly defeated by the rival Democratic Party, and the Democrats' leader, Yukio Hatoyama became prime minister in September.

With the rejection of the long-dominant Liberal Democratic Party, and the ascendancy of the archrival Democrats, major changes appeared to be on the horizon. But the Democrats’ tenure has been a disappointment so far, at least in the opinion of the Japanese electorate: the Democrats suffered a stinging setback in midterm elections in July 2010 that showed growing voter disappointment with the party’s apparent inability to deliver on promises to revamp the country’s sclerotic postwar order.

Mr. Hatoyama, who came to office with bold promises to revamp the country, announced only eight months later that he would step down after faltering over campaign pledges to remove an American base from Okinawa. In June 2010, the party elected Naoto Kan, a plain-spoken finance minister with activist roots, as prime minister.

Japan's recession-weary voters embraced Mr. Kan's tough talk, giving the Democrats a larger-than-expected bounce in the polls. But Mr. Kan saw his approval ratings quickly drop, first after he proposed a tax increase before an election — a political no-no in almost any country — then compounded the trouble by seeming to vacillate when the proposal proved predictably unpopular among voters.

The apparent flip-flopping appeared to raise broader doubts in the country about whether the inexperienced Democrats, an alliance of L.D.P. defectors and former socialists who once seemed permanently relegated to Japan’s opposition sidelines, could mold themselves into an effective governing party. Mr. Hatoyama’s and then Mr. Kan’s inconsistencies appeared to fan fears of what some political experts characterized as a leadership crisis in Japan, where voters are eager to find someone to point a way out of the country’s seemingly intractable decline.

An Earthquake and Uncharted Waters

A magnitude-8.9 earthquake that struck northern Japan on March 11, 2011, not only violently shook the ground and generated a devastating tsunami, it also moved the coastline and changed the balance of the planet. Global positioning stations closest to the epicenter jumped eastward by up to 13 feet. NASA scientists calculated that the redistribution of mass by the earthquake might have shortened the day by a couple of millionths of a second and tilted the Earth’s axis slightly.

The death toll will likely exceed 10,000.

At the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Japanese officials have struggled to contain a dire nuclear crisis in the quake's aftermath, facing partial meltdowns at two crippled reactors, fires at a third and cracks at yet another unit with a power outage that prevents the interior radioactive rods from being cooled. The emergency appeared to be the worst involving a nuclear plant since the Chernobyl disaster 25 years ago. The developments at two separate nuclear plants prompted the evacuation of more than 200,000 people.

The disasters require nationwide mobilization for search, rescue and resettlement, and a scramble for jury-rigged solutions in uncharted nuclear territory, with crises at multiple reactors posing a daunting array of problems. Japan’s leaders need to draw on skills they are woefully untrained for: improvisation; clear, timely and reassuring public communication; and cooperation with multiple powerful bureaucracies.

On March 16, Emperor Akihito took the unprecedented step of addressing his people on television, telling them in a recorded message broadcast nationwide that he was “deeply worried” about the ongoing nuclear crisis and asking them to act with compassion “to overcome these difficult times.” Akihito reportedly had never before delivered a nationally televised address of any kind, not even in the aftermath of the Kobe earthquake in 1995 that killed more than 6,000 people. 


Berkshire Hathaway traces its roots to a textile manufacturing company established by Oliver Chace in 1839 as the Valley Falls Company in Valley Falls, Rhode Island. Chace had previously worked for Samuel Slater, the founder of the first successful textile mill in America. Chace founded his first textile mill in 1806. In 1929 the Valley Falls Company merged with the Berkshire Cotton Manufacturing Company established in 1889, in Adams, Massachusetts. The combined company was known as Berkshire Fine Spinning Associates.[3]

In 1955 Berkshire Fine Spinning Associates merged with the Hathaway Manufacturing Company which was founded in 1888 in New Bedford, Massachusetts by Horatio Hathaway. Hathaway was successful in its first decades, but it suffered during a general decline in the textile industry after World War I. At this time, Hathaway was run by Seabury Stanton, whose investment efforts were rewarded with renewed profitability after the Depression. After the merger Berkshire Hathaway had 15 plants employing over 12,000 workers with over $120 million in revenue and was headquartered in New Bedford, Massachusetts. However, seven of those locations were closed by the end of the decade, accompanied by large layoffs.

In 1962, Warren Buffett began buying stock in Berkshire Hathaway after noticing a pattern in the price direction of its stock whenever the company closed a mill. Eventually, Buffett acknowledged that the textile business was waning and company's financial situation was not going to improve. In 1964, Stanton made a verbal tender offer of $11½ per share for the company to buy back Buffett's shares. Buffett agreed to the deal. A few weeks later, Buffett received the tender offer in writing, but the tender offer was for only $11⅜. Buffett later admitted that this lower, undercutting offer made him angry.[4] Instead of selling at the slightly lower price, Buffett decided to buy more of the stock to take control of the company and fire Stanton (which he did). However, this put Buffett in situation where he was now majority owner of a textile business that was failing.

Ironically, in 2010, Buffett admitted that purchasing Berkshire Hathaway was the biggest investment mistake he had ever made, estimating it had denied him compounded investment returns of about $200 billion over the last 45 years.[4] Buffett said that had he invested that money directly in insurance businesses instead of buying out Berkshire Hathaway (due to what he perceived as a slight by an individual), those investments would have paid off several-hundredfold.

Buffett initially maintained Berkshire's core business of textiles, but by 1967, he was expanding into the insurance industry and other investments. Berkshire first ventured into the insurance business with the purchase of National Indemnity Company. In the late 1970s, Berkshire acquired an equity stake in the Government Employees Insurance Company (GEICO), which forms the core of its insurance operations today (and is a major source of capital for Berkshire Hathaway's other investments). In 1985, the last textile operations (Hathaway's historic core) were shut down.

[edit]Corporate affairs

Berkshire's class A shares sold for $99,200 as of December 31, 2009, making them the highest-priced shares on the New York Stock Exchange, in part because they have never had a stock split and never paid a dividend, retaining corporate earnings on its balance sheet in a manner that is impermissible for private investors and mutual funds. Shares closed over $100,000 for the first time on October 23, 2006 and closed at an all-time high of $150,000 on December 13, 2007. Despite its size, Berkshire has not been included in broad stock market indices such as the S&P 500 due to insufficient liquidity in its shares; however, following a 50-to-1 split of Berkshire's class B shares in January 2010, Burlington Northern was replaced by Berkshire in the S&P 500 on February 16, 2010.[5][6]

Berkshire's CEO, Warren Buffett, is respected for his investment prowess and his deep understanding of a wide spectrum of businesses. His annual chairman letters are read and quoted widely. Barron's Magazine named Berkshire the most respected company in the world in 2007 based on a survey of American money managers.[7]

In 2008, Berkshire invested in preferred shares of Goldman Sachs as part of a recapitalization of the investment bank. Buffett defended Goldman CEO Lloyd Blankfein's $132 million pay package when the company had taken and not yet paid back $10 billion in TARP money from the United States Department of Treasury.[8][9][10]

As of July 1, 2010, Buffett owned 32.4% aggregate voting power of Berkshire's shares outstanding and 23.3% of the economic value of those shares.[11] Berkshire's vice-chairman, Charlie Munger, also holds a stake big enough to make him a billionaire, and early investments in Berkshire by David Gottesman and Franklin Otis Booth resulted in their becoming billionaires as well. Bill Gates' Cascade Investments LLC is the second largest shareholder of Berkshire and owns more than 5% of class B shares.

Berkshire Hathaway is notable in that it has never split its shares, which not only contributed to their high per-share price but also significantly reduced the liquidity of the stock. This refusal to split the stock reflects the management's desire to attract long-term investors as opposed to short-term speculators. However, Berkshire Hathaway has created a Class B stock, with a per-share value originally kept (by specific management rules) close to 1⁄30 of that of the original shares (now Class A) and 1⁄200 of the per-share voting rights, and after the January 2010 split, at 1⁄1,500 the price and 1⁄10,000 the voting rights of the Class-A shares. Holders of class A stock are allowed to convert their stock to Class B, though not vice versa. Buffett was reluctant to create the class B shares, but did so to thwart the creation of unit trusts that would have marketed themselves as Berkshire look-alikes. As Buffett said in his 1995 shareholder letter: "The unit trusts that have recently surfaced fly in the face of these goals. They would be sold by brokers working for big commissions, would impose other burdensome costs on their shareholders, and would be marketed en masse to unsophisticated buyers, apt to be seduced by our past record and beguiled by the publicity Berkshire and I have received in recent years. The sure outcome: a multitude of investors destined to be disappointed."

Berkshire's annual shareholders' meetings, taking place in the Qwest Center in Omaha, Nebraska, are routinely visited by 20,000 people.[12] The 2007 meeting had an attendance of approximately 27,000. The meetings, nicknamed "Woodstock for Capitalists", are considered Omaha's largest annual event along with the baseball College World Series.[13][dead link] Known for their humor and light-heartedness, the meetings typically start with a movie made for Berkshire shareholders. The 2004 movie featured Arnold Schwarzenegger in the role of "The Warrenator" who travels through time to stop Buffett and Munger's attempt to save the world from a "mega" corporation formed by Microsoft-Starbucks-Wal-Mart. Schwarzenegger is later shown arguing in a gym with Buffett regarding Proposition 13.[14] The 2006 movie depicted actresses Jamie Lee Curtis and Nicollette Sheridan *** after Munger.[15] The meeting, scheduled to last six hours, is an opportunity for investors to ask Buffett questions.

The salary for the CEO is US$100,000 per year with no stock options, which is among the lowest salaries[16] for CEOs of large companies in the United States.[17]


The current members of the board of directors of Berkshire Hathaway are Warren Buffett, Charlie Munger, Walter Scott, Jr., Thomas S. Murphy, Howard Graham Buffett, Ronald Olson, Donald Keough, Charlotte Guyman, David Gottesman, Bill Gates, Stephen Burke and Susan Decker.[18]

[edit]Succession plans

In May 2010, Buffett, months away from his 80th birthday, said he would be succeeded at Berkshire Hathaway by a team consisting of a CEO and three or four investment managers; each of the latter would be responsible for a "significant portion of Berkshire's investment portfolio."[19] Five months later, Berkshire announced that Todd Combs, manager of the hedge fund Castle Point Capital, would join them as an investment manager.[20]


[edit]Insurance group

Insurance and reinsurance business activities are conducted through approximately 70 domestic and foreign-based insurance companies. Berkshire’s insurance businesses provide insurance and reinsurance of property and casualty risks primarily in the United States. In addition, as a result of the General Re acquisition in December 1998, Berkshire’s insurance businesses also included life, accident and health reinsurers, as well as internationally-based property and casualty reinsurers. Berkshire’s insurance companies maintain capital strength at exceptionally high levels. This strength differentiates Berkshire’s insurance companies from their competitors. Collectively, the aggregate statutory surplus of Berkshire’s U.S. based insurers was approximately $48 billion at December 31, 2004. All of Berkshire’s major insurance subsidiaries are rated AAA by Standard & Poor’s Corporation, the highest Financial Strength Rating assigned by Standard & Poor’s, and are rated A++ (superior) by A. M. Best with respect to their financial condition and operating performance.

GEICO — Berkshire acquired GEICO in January 1996. GEICO is headquartered in Chevy Chase, Maryland, and its principal insurance subsidiaries include: Government Employees Insurance Company, GEICO General Insurance Company, GEICO Indemnity Company, and GEICO Casualty Company. Over the past five years, these companies have offered primarily private passenger automobile insurance to individuals in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. The subsidiaries market their policies primarily through direct response methods, in which applications for insurance are submitted directly to the companies by telephone, through the mail, or via the Internet.

General Re — Berkshire acquired General Re in December 1998. General Re held a 91% ownership interest in Cologne Re as of December 31, 2004. General Re subsidiaries currently conduct global reinsurance business in approximately 72 cities and provide reinsurance coverage worldwide. General Re operates the following reinsurance businesses: North American property/casualty, international property/casualty, which principally consists of Cologne Re and the Faraday operations, and life/health reinsurance. General Re’s reinsurance operations are primarily based in Stamford, Connecticut and Cologne, Germany. General Re is one of the largest reinsurers in the world based on net premiums written and capital.

NRG (Nederlandse Reassurantie Groep) — Berkshire acquired NRG, a Dutch life reinsurance company, from ING Group in December 2007.[21]

Berkshire Hathaway Assurance — Berkshire created a government bond insurance company to insure municipal and state bonds. These type bonds are issued by local governments to finance public works projects such as schools, hospitals, roads, and sewer systems. Few companies are capable of competing in this area.[21]

[edit]Utilities and energy group

Berkshire currently holds 83.7% (80.5% on a fully-diluted basis) of the MidAmerican Energy Holdings Company. At the time of purchase, Berkshire's voting interest was limited to 10% of the company's shares, but this restriction ended when the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 was repealed in 2005. A major subsidiary of MidAmerican is CE Electric UK.

[edit]Manufacturing, service, and retailing


Berkshire’s apparel businesses include manufacturers and distributors of a variety of clothing and footwear. Businesses engaged in the manufacture and distribution of clothing include Union Underwear Corp. - Fruit of the Loom, Garan, Fechheimer Brothers and Russell Corporation. Berkshire’s footwear businesses include H.H. Brown Shoe Group, Acme Boots and Justin Brands. Berkshire acquired Fruit of the Loom on April 29, 2002 for $835 million in cash. Fruit of the Loom, headquartered in Bowling Green, Kentucky, is a vertically integrated manufacturer of basic apparel. Berkshire acquired Russell Corporation on August 2, 2006 for $600 million or $18.00 per share.

[edit]Building products

In August 2000, Berkshire entered the building products business with the acquisition of Acme Building Brands. Acme, headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas, manufactures and distributes clay bricks (Acme Brick), concrete block (Featherlite) and cut limestone (Texas Quarries). Berkshire acquired Benjamin Moore & Co. in December 2000. Benjamin Moore, headquartered in Montvale, New Jersey, is a formulator, manufacturer and retailer of primarily architectural coatings, available principally in the United States and Canada. Berkshire acquired Johns Manville in February 2001. JM has been serving the building products industry since 1885 and is a manufacturer of fiber glass wool insulation products for walls, attics and floors in homes and commercial buildings, as well as pipe, duct and equipment insulation products. Berkshire acquired a 90% equity interest in MiTek Inc.[22] in July 2001. MiTek is headquartered in Chesterfield, Missouri and makes engineered connector products, engineering software and services, and manufacturing machinery for the truss fabrication segment of the building components industry. Berkshire acquired Shaw Industries, Inc. in 2001. Shaw, headquartered in Dalton, Georgia, is the world’s largest carpet manufacturer based on both revenue and volume of production. Shaw designs and manufactures over 3,000 styles of tufted and woven carpet and laminate flooring for residential and commercial use under about 30 brand and trade names and under certain private labels. On August 7, 2003, Berkshire acquired Clayton Homes, Inc. Clayton, headquartered near Knoxville, Tennessee, is a vertically integrated manufactured housing company. At year-end 2004, Clayton operated 32 manufacturing plants in 12 states. Clayton’s homes are marketed in 48 states through a network of 1,540 retailers, 391 of which are company-owned sales centers. On May 1, 2008, Mitek acquired Hohmann & Barnard a fabricator of anchors and reinforcement systems for masonry. On October 3, 2008, Mitek acquired Blok-Lok, Ltd. of Toronto, Canada. On April 23, 2010, Mitek acquired the assets of Dur-O-Wal from Dayton Superior Corporation.

[edit]Flight services

In 1996, Berkshire acquired FlightSafety International Inc. FSI’s corporate headquarters is located at LaGuardia Airport in Flushing, New York. FSI engages primarily in the business of providing high technology training to operators of aircraft and ships. FlightSafety is the world's leading provider of professional aviation training services. Berkshire acquired NetJets Inc. in 1998. NJ is the world’s leading provider of fractional ownership programs for general aviation aircraft. In 1986, NJ created the fractional ownership of aircraft concept and introduced its NetJets program in the United States with one aircraft type. In 2004, the NetJets program operated 15 aircraft types.


The home furnishings businesses are the Nebraska Furniture Mart, R.C. Willey Home Furnishings, Star Furniture Company, and Jordan’s Furniture, Inc. CORT Business Services Corporation was acquired in 2000 by an 80.1% owned subsidiary of Berkshire and is the leading national provider of rental furniture, accessories and related services in the “rent-to-rent” segment of the furniture rental industry.

In 2002 Berkshire acquired The Pampered Chef, LTD, the largest direct seller of kitchen tools in the United States. Products are researched, designed and tested by TPC, and manufactured by third party suppliers. From its Addison, Illinois headquarters, TPC utilizes a network of more than 65,000 independent sales representatives to sell its products through home-based party demonstrations, principally in the United States.

See's Candies produces boxed chocolates and other confectionery products in two large kitchens in California. See’s revenues are highly seasonal with approximately 50% of total annual revenues being earned in the months of November and December. Dairy Queen services a system of approximately 6,000 stores operating under the names Dairy Queen, Orange Julius and Karmelkorn that offer various dairy desserts, beverages, prepared foods, blended fruit drinks, popcorn and other snack foods.

[edit]Other non-insurance

On 25 December 2007, Berkshire Hathaway acquired Marmon Holdings Inc. Previously it was a privately held conglomerate owned by the Pritzker family for over fifty years, which owned and operated an assortment of manufacturing companies that produce railroad tank cars, shopping carts, plumbing pipes, metal fasteners, wiring and water treatment products used in residential construction.[23]

Berkshire acquired McLane Company, Inc. in May 2003 from Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., which brought on other subsidiaries such as Professional Datasolutions, Inc. and Salado Sales, among others. McLane provides wholesale distribution and logistics services in all 50 states and internationally in Brazil to customers that include discount retailers, convenience stores, quick service restaurants, drug stores and movie theatre complexes. Scott Fetzer Companies — The Scott Fetzer Companies are a diversified group of 21 businesses that manufacture and distribute a wide variety of products for residential, industrial and institutional use. The three most significant of these businesses are Kirby home cleaning systems, Wayne Water Systems and Campbell Hausfeld products. Scott Fetzer also manufactures Ginsu Knives. The Buffalo News publishes one edition daily from its headquarters in Buffalo, New York.

In 2002, Berkshire acquired Albecca Inc. Albecca is headquartered in Norcross, Georgia, and primarily does business under the Larson-Juhl name. Albecca designs, manufactures and distributes custom framing products, including wood and metal molding, matboard, foamboard, glass, equipment and other framing supplies. Berkshire acquired CTB International Corp. in 2002. CTB, headquartered in Milford, Indiana, is a designer, manufacturer and marketer of systems used in the grain industry and in the production of poultry, hogs, and eggs. Products are produced in the United States and Europe and are sold primarily through a global network of independent dealers and distributors, with peak sales occurring in the second and third quarters.

[edit]Finance and financial products

Berkshire acquired XTRA Lease in September 2001. XTRA, headquartered in St. Louis, Missouri, is a leading transportation equipment lessor. XTRA manages a diverse fleet of approximately 105,000 units, constituting a net investment of approximately $1 billion as of December 31, 2004. The fleet includes over-the-road and storage trailers, chassis, intermodal piggyback trailers and domestic containers.

Clayton's finance business, (loans to manufactured home owners), earned $206 million down from $526 million in 2007. Loan losses remain 3.6% up from 2.9%.[24]


[edit]Equities – beneficial ownership

This includes some of the companies where a Berkshire Hathaway stake is 5% or more of the outstanding stock, as reported in the last proxy statement SEC filing, and the latest[when?] annual report. In order of percentage stake:

Wesco Financial Corporation (80%)

Moody's Corporation (19.1%)

USG (19.0%)

The Washington Post Company (18.2%)

American Express Co. (13.1%)

Wells Fargo (9.2%)

The Coca-Cola Company (8.6%)


As of 2008, Berkshire owns $27 billion in fixed income securities, mainly foreign government bonds and corporate bonds.[25]


In 2003, Pepsi paid Berkshire 10 million dollars to insure against a contest they had which had a potential 1 billion dollar prize to be given out.[26] The prize had a very small chance to be given out and it was not won by anyone.

In 2008, Berkshire purchased preferred stock in Wrigley, Goldman Sachs, and GE totaling $14.5 billion.[27]

Berkshire made $3.5 billion on its investment in preferred shares of Goldman Sachs. However, Berkshire and Buffett have been widely criticized for Buffett's defense of Lloyd Blankfein's $132 million pay package[citation needed] while they owed the United States Department of Treasury $10 billion in TARP money.

On May 1, 2010 at the Berkshire shareholders meeting, Buffett also defended Goldman over $1 billion in collateralized debt obligation fraud allegations saying that its clients made a calculated risk.[citation needed]

On November 3, 2009, Berkshire Hathaway announced that, using stock and cash totaling $26 billion, it would acquire the remainder of BNSF Railway that it did not already own.[28] This is the largest acquisition in Berkshire's history.

On March 14, 2011, Berkshire Hathaway announced that it would acquire the Lubrizol Corporation for $9 billion in cash, a deal that was described as one of the largest deals ever for Berkshire Hathaway. [29]


Terry O'Quinn

Terry O'Quinn (born Terrance Quinn; July 15, 1952) is an American actor, most famous for playing John Locke on the TV series Lost. He made his debut in a 1980 television movie called F.D.R.: The Last Year. Since then, O'Quinn has had minor supporting roles in films and TV movies such as Young Guns, All the Right Moves, Silver Bullet, Places in the Heart, Between Two Women, and The Rocketeer, in which he portrayed Howard Hughes. O'Quinn has had guest roles on TV shows such as Miami Vice, The Twilight Zone, Tales of the Unexpected, The West Wing, JAG, Remington Steele, and The X Files.

O'Quinn became known for playing the title role in The Stepfather and Stepfather II, and in 1996 O'Quinn was cast as Peter Watts in Millennium, which ran for three seasons (1996–1999). In 2004, O'Quinn finally broke into mainstream popularity after landing the role of John Locke on the ABC TV series Lost, for which he won an Emmy Award in 2007 and was nominated in 2005 and 2010.

Contents [hide]

1 Early life

2 Career

2.1 The Stepfather films

2.2 Lost

3 Personal life

4 Filmography

5 References

6 External links

[edit]Early life

O'Quinn was born as Terrance Quinn at War Memorial Hospital in Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, one of 11 siblings born to Irish American parents. He grew up in nearby Newberry, Michigan, and was raised Roman Catholic.[1][2] He attended Central Michigan University in Mount Pleasant, Michigan, and the University of Iowa in Iowa City. He changed his surname from Quinn to O'Quinn as another registered actor already had the name Terrance Quinn.[3]


Terry began acting in the 1970s during his time at Central Michigan University. He not only was an outstanding actor but also playwright/director. He wrote and directed the musical Orchestrina. This musical featured five main characters: The Man (played by Jeff Daniels), The Boy (Harold Downs), The Woman (Ann O'Donnell), The Girl (Debbie Penwarden), and The Drunk (James Hilliker), plus a female and a male chorus.[citation needed]

Starting in 1980, O'Quinn has appeared in various feature films such as Silver Bullet, Tombstone, Heaven's Gate, Young Guns, and as Howard Hughes in The Rocketeer. His early television roles include guest appearances on Miami Vice (episode "Give a Little, Take a Little"), Earth 2, Moonlighting, Star Trek: The Next Generation (episode "The Pegasus"), The New Twilight Zone (episode "Chameleon"), Homicide: Life on the Street (episode "Hate Crimes"), and a recurring role as Rear Admiral Thomas Boone on JAG.

O'Quinn made his breakthrough by appearing as the deranged serial-killing title character in The Stepfather. His acting performance was praised by film critic Roger Ebert, from the Chicago Sun Times, who commented: "The Stepfather" has one wonderful element: Terry O'Quinn's performance".[4] O'Quinn was nominated for both a Saturn Award and an Independent Spirit Award for his performance. A sequel was released, two years after the first movie, but it wasn't as much of a success as the first movie. It grossed almost a million dollars less at the box office.[5][6] It was never explained why O'Quinn wasn't in the third installment of the series, in which the stepfather character was portrayed by Robert Wightman.[citation needed]

Around 1995, O'Quinn made guest appearances in The X-Files and Harsh Realm, produced by Chris Carter, who also cast him in the film The X-Files: Fight The Future and then once again in the final season. In 1996 O'Quinn started acting in the television series Millennium as Peter Watts, also produced by Chris Carter. O'Quinn held this role for all three seasons of the series. O'Quinn holds the distinction of having played four different characters within the extended X-Files/Millennium continuum (the two shows being classed together since both Lance Henriksen's character of Frank Black and Charles Nelson Reilly's character of Jose Chung have appeared in both shows). [7][8]

Terry was approached by director of the 2009 reboot of The Stepfather, Nelson McCormick, to make a cameo appearance in the film, but according to the producers O'Quinn turned down the offer.[9][10]

[edit]The Stepfather films

Further information: The Stepfather (1987 film) and The Stepfather II

In 1987 and 1989, Terry played the main character and antagonist in the horror films Stepfather I & II. The franchise spawned a third sequel; however, Terry did not star in the third and final sequel. In I, Terry plays the role of a deranged serial killer going by the name "Jerry Blake" (his character's real name and identity are never revealed to the audience), who is obsessed with having the ideal family. When the widowed mother and daughter do not comport with his expectations, he spirals into a spell of madness and attempts to brutally murder them. In II, he escapes from the asylum in which he is placed and steals the identity of a man he murders in the beginning of the film named Gene Clifford. And the fun starts all over again. The 1989 sequel also stars the late Jonathan Brandis as the son of the woman O'Quinn courts.


Further information: John Locke (Lost) and Lost (TV series)

After a string of recurring appearances on Alias (2002–2003), as the FBI Director Kendall, O'Quinn became a favorite of television producer J.J. Abrams. Following a seven-episode guest run on The West Wing in 2003–2004, O'Quinn received a call from Abrams indicating that the producer wanted to cast him in his new television drama Lost without any audition. In 2005 O'Quinn received an Emmy nomination for Best Supporting Actor in a Drama for his work as John Locke on the series Lost. O'Quinn admitted on the TV Guide Channel that he did not have much faith in Lost at first, calling it "The Mysterious Gilligan's Island of Dr. Moreau".[11] The show, however, became one of the most popular on television, and on September 16, 2007 he won an Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actor In A Drama Series for his role, and was nominated again for an Emmy for the role in 2010, which he did not win. In a interview O'Quinn commented that the reason he felt comfortable playing this character is because he's a bit like him.[12]

[edit]Personal life

O'Quinn has been married to his wife, Lori, for 31 years. Most of that time they lived in Reisterstown, Maryland, but after Lost began airing, the couple decided to follow the example of O'Quinn's co stars and move to Hawaii, where the series was shot. The couple own a home in Hawaii and one in Maryland. They have two sons, Oliver and Hunter. O'Quinn also has one granddaughter.

Terry Farrell

Biography for

Terry Farrell (I) More at IMDbPro »

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Date of Birth

19 November 1963, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, USA

Birth Name

Theresa Lee Farrell




6' (1.83 m)

Mini Biography

Terry Farrell was born in 1963 in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. At age 15, she became a foreign exchange student to Mexico, and, from that experience, she decided she would like to live a more adventurous life in the big city. She sent several photos to a modeling agency and then, at age 17, dropped out of high school and became a model in New York.

She is most famously known for her role as Jadzia Dax in the TV show "Star Trek: Deep Space Nine" (1993), but she did have some acting experience before that. In 1992, she had the star role in the movie Hellraiser III: *** on Earth (1992). She appeared in several TV and straight-to-video movies, and also dated actors Michael Dorn and Mickey Rourke while on "Star Trek: Deep Space Nine" (1993).

Afterward, Paramount decided to move her to the show "Becker" (1998), where she played the character Reggie Kostas, but, after four seasons, she was replaced by Nancy Travis. Since then, she hasn't been in many mainstream events. In September of 2002, she married Brian Baker, better known as the cell-phone company Sprint's spokesperson.

IMDb Mini Biography By: Helltopay27


Brian Baker (1 September 2002 - present) 1 child


She deep sea fishes for a hobby. She caught two five-foot wahoos on her first outing. She mounted the first one and fed the second to an entire village.

Modeled for 3 years in her late teens, and quit to become an actress.

Described by LeVar Burton as "Action Barbie"

She has 2 older and 2 younger sisters.

She has 5 nephews and 4 nieces

Before becoming a model, Miss Farrell played an Christmas elf at a mall in Cedar Rapids, Iowa.

Played the Cat in the 15 min teaser promo for a US "Red Dwarf" (after NBC asked Grant and Naylor for another pilot)

Measurements: 34B-25-36 (on 1984 model card), (Source: Celebrity Sleuth magazine)

Is the disembodied voice in the US government's 2004 television ad campaign regarding the changes in the Medicaid and Medicare laws.

Daughter of Edwin Francis Farrell Jr. and wife Kay Carol Christine Bendickson.

Personal Quotes

About being killed off on "Star Trek: Deep Space Nine" (1993): "I begged the producers not to kill me. They thought I was just being this neurotic little actress hoping to have a part to come back to, but I really meant it. I didn't want to see six great years end that way".

On actor Ted Danson: "Danson is very funny and very attractive. ***, if he wasn't married, I'd go out with him in a minute".

Where Are They Now

(July 2008) Retired from acting in 2003 following her marriage and the birth of her son. Resides in New York City as a stay-at-home mom and housewife.

Terry Bradshaw

Terry Paxton Bradshaw (born September 2, 1948) is a former American football quarterback with the Pittsburgh Steelers in the National Football League (NFL). He played 14 seasons. He is a football analyst and co-host of Fox NFL Sunday. In a six-year span, he won four Super Bowl titles with Pittsburgh (1974, 1975, 1978 and 1979), becoming the first quarterback to win three and four Super Bowls, and led the Steelers to eight AFC Central championships. He was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1989, his first year of eligibility.

A tough competitor, Bradshaw had a powerful – albeit at times erratic – arm and called his own plays throughout his football career. His physical skills and on-the-field leadership played a major role in Pittsburgh Steelers history. During his career, he passed for more than 300 yards in a game only seven times, but three of those performances came in the post-season, and two of those in Super Bowls. In four career Super Bowl appearances he passed for 932 yards and 9 touchdowns, both Super Bowl records at the time of his retirement. In 19 postseason games he completed 261 passes for 3,833 yards.

Contents [hide]

1 High school and college

2 NFL career

3 After football

3.1 Broadcasting career

3.2 Business career

4 Personal life

5 Acting

6 Passing stats

7 See also

8 References

9 Further reading

10 External links

[edit]High school and college

Bradshaw was born in Shreveport, Louisiana, the second of three sons of Bill and Novis Bradshaw.[1][2] He attended Woodlawn High School and led the Knights to the 1965 AAA High School Championship game where they lost to the Sulphur Tors 12-9. While at Woodlawn, he set a national record for throwing the javelin 245 feet. His exploits earned him a spot in the Sports Illustrated feature Faces In The Crowd.

Bradshaw decided to attend Louisiana Tech University in Ruston, Louisiana. He has much affinity for his alma mater. He is a member of the Tau Kappa Epsilon fraternity. He was active in the Fellowship of Christian Athletes and spoke before many athletic banquets and other gatherings.[3]

In 1969, he was considered by most pro scouts to be the most outstanding college football player. As a junior, he amassed 2,890 total yards, ranking #1 in the NCAA, and led his team to a 9-2 record and a 33-13 win over Akron in the Rice Bowl. In his senior season, he gained 2,314 yards, ranking third in the NCAA, and led his team to an 8-2 record. His decrease in production was mainly because his team played only ten games that year, and he was taken out of several games in the second half because his team had built up a huge lead. As quarterback, Bradshaw threw his passes principally to teammates Larry C. Brewer (1948–2003) of Minden, the offensive end, and Thomas Allen "Tommy" Spinks (1948–2007), the split end who had also been Bradshaw's Woodlawn High School teammate. As a result, Brewer and Spinks were recorded among the top pass receivers in Louisiana Tech history. In 1996, Bradshaw was voted into the hall of fame.

[edit]NFL career

Bradshaw was the first player selected in the 1970 NFL Draft by the Pittsburgh Steelers; the Steelers drew the first pick in the draft after winning a coin flip tiebreaker with the Chicago Bears due to both teams having identical 1-13 records in 1969.[4] (It should be noted, though, that by modern NFL tiebreaking rules, the Steelers would have automatically been awarded the pick anyway since the Bears' one win came against the Steelers in Week 8. The coin toss is now the last of seven tiebreaking options to determining draft position, which has yet to be used on the number one pick.) In either case, Bradshaw was hailed at the time as the consensus number one pick, regardless of which team drafted him.

Bradshaw became a starter one year after he was drafted in 1970. During his first several seasons, the 6'3", 215 lb. quarterback was erratic, threw many interceptions (he threw 210 interceptions over the course of his career) and was widely ridiculed by the media for his rural roots and perceived lack of intelligence.

It took Bradshaw a few seasons to adjust to the pro game but once he did, he eventually became the premier quarterback in the NFL, leading the Pittsburgh Steelers to eight AFC Central championships and an unprecedented collection of Super Bowl rings. The Pittsburgh Steelers featured the "Steel Curtain" defense and a powerful running attack led by Franco Harris, but Bradshaw's strong arm gave them the threat of the deep pass, helping to loosen opposing defenses. In 1972, he threw the pass leading to the "Immaculate Reception", among the most famous plays in NFL history.

Bradshaw temporarily lost the starting job to Joe Gilliam in 1974, but Bradshaw took over again during the regular season and in the 1974 AFC Championship Game against the Oakland Raiders, his fourth-quarter touchdown pass to Lynn Swann proved to be the winning score in a 24-13 victory. In the Steelers’ 16-6 Super Bowl IX victory over the Minnesota Vikings that followed, Bradshaw completed 9 of 14 passes and his fourth-quarter touchdown pass put the game out of reach and helped take the Steelers to their first Super Bowl victory.

Bradshaw acknowledged in his first autobiography, Man of Steel, that by 1974, he felt as if he was bottoming out. His first marriage to Melissa Babich had failed, his shoulder had been injured, and he was often sullen and depressed. The turnaround came when, according to his memoir, Bradshaw, already a born-again Christian, had a revelation: "I had separated myself from God. I lived only for Terry Bradshaw, not for God. I tried to be one of the boys and went to every honky-tonk I could find and chased women and behaved in a way that was totally alien to anything I had ever known before … my whole life was out of control … I was trying to be someone else and was doing a rotten job of it."

What happened to Bradshaw amounted to a second "conversion" experience. "I just put my head in my hands and began to cry and tremble all over and finally I blurted out, 'Here I am, God. I've tried to handle it all by myself and I just can't get the job done. So I'm placing my life in Your hands. I need some peace of mind and I know You can give it to me.'" The quarterback recalls feeling suddenly "stronger mentally and physically.… Being a starting quarterback didn't matter.… What mattered was that I was myself again and I was determined to stay that way."

In Super Bowl X following the 1975 season, Bradshaw threw for 209 yards, most of them to Lynn Swann, as the Steelers beat the Dallas Cowboys, 21-17. His 64-yard touchdown pass to Swann (that travelled roughly 70 yards in the air)-- which was released a split-second before defensive tackle Larry Cole flattened him causing a serious concussion—late in the fourth quarter is considered one of the greatest passes in NFL history.

Neck and wrist injuries in 1976 forced Bradshaw to miss four games. He was sharp in a 40-14 victory over the Baltimore Colts, completing 14 of 18 passes for 264 yards and three touchdowns, but the Steelers' hopes of a three-peat ended with a 24-7 loss to Oakland in the AFC Championship game.

Bradshaw had his finest season in 1978 when he was named the NFL's Most Valuable Player by the Associated Press after a season in which he completed 207 of 368 passes for 2,915 yards and a league-leading 28 touchdown passes. He was also named All-Pro and All-AFC that year.

Before Super Bowl XIII, a Steelers-Cowboys rematch, Cowboys linebacker Thomas "Hollywood" Henderson famously ridiculed Bradshaw by saying, "He couldn't spell 'Cat' if you spotted him the 'c' and the 'a'." Bradshaw got his revenge by winning the Most Valuable Player award, completing 17 of 30 passes for a then-record 318 yards and four touchdowns in a 35-31 win. Years later, Henderson, who struggled for years to conquer drug addiction, admitted he was high on cocaine at the time of the interview. Bradshaw has in later years made light of the ridicule with quips such as "it's football, not rocket science."

Bradshaw won his second straight Super Bowl MVP in 1979 in Super Bowl XIV. He passed for 309 yards and 2 touchdowns in a 31-19 win over the Los Angeles Rams. Bradshaw also shared the Sports Illustrated magazine's "Sportsmen of the Year" award with Willie Stargell that season.

After two seasons of missing the playoffs, Bradshaw played through pain — he needed a cortisone shot before every game because of an elbow injury sustained during training camp — in a strike-shortened 1982 NFL season. He still managed to tie for the most touchdown passes in the league with 17. In a 31-28 playoff loss to the San Diego Chargers, Bradshaw's last postseason game, he completed 28-of-39 passes for 325 yards, two touchdowns and two interceptions.

After undergoing offseason elbow surgery, Bradshaw was idle for the first 14 games of the 1983 NFL season. Then on December 10 against the New York Jets, he felt a pop in his elbow while throwing his final pass, a ten yard touchdown to Calvin Sweeney in the second quarter of the Steelers' 34-7 win. Bradshaw later left the game and never played again. The two touchdowns Bradshaw threw in what would be the final NFL game played at Shea Stadium (and the last NFL game in New York City to date) allowed him to finish his career with two more touchdowns (212) than interceptions (210) for his career. In his 14-season career, Bradshaw completed 2,025 of 3,901 passes for 27,989 yards and 212 touchdowns. He also rushed 444 times for 2,257 yards and 32 touchdowns. He was 107-51 as the starting quarterback and the Steelers reached the playoffs 10 times. His career postseason record as a starter was 14-5. He was also selected to play in three Pro Bowl games.

While the Steelers no longer officially retire uniform numbers (with the exception of Ernie Stautner's #70), they have not reissued Bradshaw's #12 since he retired, and it is generally understood that no Steeler will wear that number again.

In 1999, he was ranked number 44 on The Sporting News' list of the 100 Greatest Football Players.

[edit]After football

In July 1997, Bradshaw served as the presenter when Mike Webster, his center on the Steelers' four Super Bowl title teams, was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame.

In 2006, despite the Steelers being one of the teams playing in the game, Bradshaw did not attend a pregame celebration for past Super Bowl MVP's during Super Bowl XL in Detroit, Michigan. According to reports, Bradshaw (along with three time MVP and close friend Joe Montana) requested a $100,000 guarantee for his appearance in the Super Bowl MVP Parade, and associated appearances. The NFL could not guarantee that they would make that much and refused. A representative for Bradshaw has since denied this report. After an appearance on The Tonight Show (February 6, 2006) Bradshaw stated that the reason why he did not attend the MVP parade was because he was spending time with family, that he hates the crowds and the Super Bowl media circus, and also that the only way he would attend a Super Bowl is when Fox is broadcasting the game (it was ABC who broadcasted Super Bowl XL), though Bradshaw attended several press conferences in Detroit days earlier. Bradshaw also stated that money was not an issue.

In April 2006, Bradshaw donated his four Super Bowl rings, College Football Hall of Fame ring, Pro Football Hall of Fame ring, Hall of Fame bust, four miniature replica Super Bowl trophies, and a helmet and jersey from one of his Super Bowl victories to his alma mater, Louisiana Tech.

[edit]Broadcasting career

Bradshaw retired from football in 1983, and quickly signed a television contract with CBS to become an NFL game analyst in 1984, where he and play-by-play announcer Verne Lundquist had the top rated programs. Prior to his full-time work for them, he served as a guest commentator for CBS Sports' NFC postseason broadcasts from 1980–82.

Bradshaw was promoted into television studio analyst for The NFL Today in 1990 (which he hosted with Greg Gumbel through the 1993 season), and Fox NFL Sunday, where he normally acts as a comic foil to his co-hosts. On Fox NFL Sunday he hosts two semi-regular features, Ten Yards with TB, where he fires random questions at an NFL pro, and The Terry Awards, an annual comedic award show about the NFL season. He appeared on the first broadcast of NASCAR on FOX where he took a ride with Dale Earnhardt at Daytona International Speedway.

On June 19, 2008, Terry Bradshaw revealed on The Dan Patrick Show that he took therapeutic corticosteroid steroid injections, per his doctors' orders, during the 1970s to "speed healing." Corticosteroids, which are different from anabolic steroids and are used to reduce inflammation, are not banned from the NFL.[5]

Bradshaw has the reputation of being the "ol' redneck", in co-host and former NFL coach's Jimmy Johnson's words, but the act is a "schtick." [6] According to Johnson, Bradshaw deflects such criticism by stating that "he's so dumb that he has to have somebody else fly his private plane." [6]

[edit]Business career

Bradshaw has also written or co-written five books and recorded six albums of country/western and gospel music. His cover of "I'm So Lonesome I Could Cry" hit Top 20 on Billboard's country chart (and #91 on the Hot 100) in 1976; two other tunes ("The Last Word In Lonesome Is Me" and "Until You") also made the country charts.[7]

In 2001, Bradshaw entered the world of NASCAR by joining with HighLine Performance Group racing team to form FitzBradshaw Racing. He also is the spokesman for Jani-King international, Inc.

At the NASCAR 2001 Speedweeks, Bradshaw did a variety of on air trackside spoofs for Fox who was covering the Speedweeks and that year's first race, the Daytona 500. On the night of February 17, 2001, the night before the race, Bradshaw and Dale Earnhardt (Sr.) did a spoof for Fox-TV in which Earnhardt raced around Daytona International Speedway in a pace car with Bradshaw as a passenger, going at max 150 mph, scaring Bradshaw in a laughing way. The spoof finished with Earnhardt doing burnouts on pit road, and the two jumping on top of the car, as if they had won. Earnhardt also visited with Bradshaw's family. Little did either know that it would be Earnhardt's last night, as the next day on February 18, 2001, Earnhardt would be killed in a last lap crash at the Daytona 500. Bradshaw was the honorary starter for that race.

In November 2005, Bradshaw announced that he and a group of investors from Louisiana were interested in buying the New Orleans Saints. The Saints, who had been forced out of the Louisiana Superdome for the 2005 season by Hurricane Katrina, were operating out of San Antonio, Texas, and had to play most of their 2005 home games at the Alamodome there and at LSU's Tiger Stadium in Baton Rouge. Several actions and statements by Saints owner Tom Benson and several San Antonio and Texas officials fueled speculation that Benson wanted to move the team to San Antonio permanently. While the NFL opposed a move to San Antonio, there were rumors that they may allow the team to move to Los Angeles, which has been without an NFL team since 1995. Bradshaw, a Louisiana native, said that he did not want his home state to lose the Saints because of Katrina, and was willing to purchase the team to see to it that that would not happen. However, his plans fell through, as Benson was unwilling to sell the team. Despite Bradshaw's failed attempts to buy the team, the Saints ultimately remained in New Orleans and have been a key contributor in rebuilding New Orleans in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina.

In August 2007, Bradshaw was announced as a co-owner and spokesperson for Pay the Fan[8] a fantasy sports football and racing site.

Among U.S. consumers, Bradshaw remains one of pro football's most popular retired players. As of September 2007, Bradshaw was the top-ranked former pro football player in the Davie-Brown Index (DBI), which surveys consumers to determine a celebrity's appeal and trust levels.[9]

On November 5, 2007 during a nationally-televised Monday Night Football game, Bradshaw joined former teammates including Franco Harris and Joe Greene to accept their position on the Pittsburgh Steelers 75th Anniversary All-Time Team.

[edit]Personal life

Bradshaw has been married three times. He was married to Melissa Babish (former Miss Teen Age America of 1969)[10] from 1972–73; to ice skater JoJo Starbuck from 1976–83; and from 1983–99, to Charlotte Hopkins, who is the mother of his two daughters, Rachel and Erin. His daughter Erin shows horses. His daughter Rachel is a graduate of Belmont University in Nashville, Tennessee and had appeared on Nashville, a reality show about musicians trying to make it in Nashville. All three of Bradshaw's marriages have ended in divorce, a subject he ridicules frequently on his pre-game show. For example, on October 2, 2005, he began a Ten Yards with TB piece on the Eagles' Jeremiah Trotter by discussing Trotter's ejection from a game prior to the kickoff and joking, "Nobody's been thrown out of a house that quickly since my last divorce." Also, on October 5, 2008, he compared the relationship between new Washington Redskins head coach Jim Zorn and starting quarterback Jason Campbell to a good marriage. Jimmy Johnson immediately joked, "What would you know about a good marriage?"

After his NFL career ended, Bradshaw disclosed that he had frequently experienced anxiety attacks after games. The problem worsened in the late 1990s after his third divorce, when he said he "could not bounce back" as he had after the previous divorces or after a bad game. In addition to anxiety attacks, his symptoms included weight loss, frequent crying, and sleeplessness. He was diagnosed with clinical depression. Since then he has taken Paxil regularly. He chose to speak out about his depression to overcome the stigma associated with it and to urge others to seek help.[11]

Bradshaw's anxieties about appearing in public, away from the controlled environment of a television studio, led to an unintentional estrangement from the Steelers. When team founder and owner Art Rooney died in 1988, Bradshaw did not attend his funeral. A year later, during his Hall of Fame induction speech, Bradshaw made a point of saluting his late boss and friend, pointing to the sky and saying, "Art Rooney... boy, I tell you, I loved that man."

Still, Bradshaw never returned to Three Rivers Stadium for a Steelers game. When the last regular-season game was played there on December 16, 2000, Bradshaw was with the Fox NFL Sunday crew, doing their pregame show aboard the aircraft carrier USS Harry S. Truman, while Fox covered the game live. Bradshaw expressed regret that he could not be there, but would later say privately that he did not feel he could face the crowds. It would not be until September 2002 when fellow Hall of Fame teammate and longtime friend Mike Webster died that Bradshaw finally returned to Pittsburgh to attend his friend's funeral.

In October 2002, Bradshaw returned to the Steelers sideline for the first time in 20 years for a Monday night game between the Steelers and the Indianapolis Colts. In 2003, when the Steelers played the 1,000th game in franchise history, Fox covered the game at Heinz Field, and Bradshaw returned to cover the game. In addition to appearing to take his position on the Steelers All-Time Team in 2007 as part of the team's 75th anniversary festivities, he also was on the sideline for the 2007 home opener, where the Steelers earned their 500th regular season win.

Bradshaw has said he is interested in performing on Dancing with the Stars, on the condition that Paula Deen also appear.[12]


He has appeared in numerous television commercials, including a 2004 Radio Shack ad. Bradshaw also had cameo appearances in many shows as himself, including Everybody Loves Raymond, Married... with Children and The League; He also appeared on Malcolm in the Middle with Howie Long as the trashy coach of a women's ice hockey team. He hosted a short-lived television series in 1997 called Home Team with Terry Bradshaw.

In addition to his television work, Bradshaw has appeared in several movies, including a part in the 1978 film Hooper which starred Burt Reynolds, Jan-Michael Vincent, and Sally Field, and 1981's appearance in The Cannonball Run. In 1980, he had a cameo in Smokey and the Bandit II which starred Burt Reynolds, Jerry Reed, and Sally Field. He made a guest appearance in The Adventures of Brisco County, Jr. in 1994, playing Colonel Forrest March, a rogue U.S. Army officer who gave orders to his squad (played by NFL members Ken Norton, Jr., Carl Banks and Jim Harbaugh) in a huddle using football diagrams.

Bradshaw appeared on Jeff Foxworthy's short-lived sitcom, The Jeff Foxworthy Show as a motivational speaker for people needing to change their life. Bill Engvall's character is affected by Bradshaw's ranting speakings of witchcraft and voodooo in his pre-game warm-ups.

On October 11, 2001, Bradshaw received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, the first and only NFL player (as of May 31, 2008) to do so.[13][14]

In 2006, Bradshaw returned to the silver screen in the motion picture Failure to Launch. He and Kathy Bates played the parents of Matthew McConaughey's character. In one notable scene he appeared nude, a move which Jay Leno spent an entire segment mocking during an appearance on The Tonight Show with Jay Leno. He mentioned on May 23, 2008, on The Tonight Show that he has been a guest 37 times, and that 34 of them were on a Friday, which happens to be the lowest watched night of television. He pleasantly joked with Jay about being a 'filler' guest. He made a similar reference in an appearance on March 15, 2010, stating he was asked to guest because of a cancellation. Jay stated that at least he wasn't appearing on Friday, which hosts the more famous celebrity guests. He is also a devout Christian and wrote the book Terry Bradshaw: Man of Steel. In 2009 he was featured in a New Yorker magazine piece that satirized the recent scandal over a fake Holocaust memoir written by Herman Rosenblat.[15] Since 2010 Terry Bradshaw has been hosting television shows


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